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Network communication, Ethernet

2022-09-23 09:32:29Ricu_LiuJie


A local area network is a data link layer network that uses a broadcast channel, and Ethernet is its most typical representative.

Has the following features:

  • Broadcast function
  • Facilitates the expansion and gradual evolution of the system
  • Improved system reliability, availability, and survivability

Ethernet is a LAN technology of shared medium. Multiple sites are linked to the same shared medium. Only one site can send data at the same time.A link connecting multiple terminals is multiple access.

The Origin of Ethernet

Ethernet is not a single protocol, but a complete collection of different standards.These standards are from IEEE, and their names all start with 802.3.

Ethernet Overview

Ethernet is a computer local area network technology.The IEEE 802.3 standard organized by the IEEE has formulated the technical standard of Ethernet, which stipulates the content including the connection of the physical layer, the electronic signal and the medium access control.Ethernet is currently the most common LAN technology, replacing other LAN standards such as Token Ring, FDDI and ARCNET.

The standard topology of Ethernet is a bus topology, but the current Fast Ethernet (100BASE-T, 1000BASE-T standards) will improve network speed and efficiency in order to reduce conflictsTo maximize, use a switch (Switch hub) for network connection and organization.In this way, the topology of Ethernet becomes star; but logically, Ethernet still uses bus topology and CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection, that is, carrier multiple access/collision detection).bus technology.

Differences and connections between Ethernet and the Internet

Ethernet accounts for the highest proportion of networking technologies. Many people directly understand Ethernet as the Internet.Therefore, it is necessary to explain in detail the difference and connection between Ethernet and the Internet.

The Internet is the INTERNET, it is a global Internet network.It consists of millions of private, governmental, academic, corporate and governmental networks from local to global scales, linked together by a wide range of technologies including electronic, wireless and fiber optic networking technologies.It uses the TCP/IP protocol suite as a communication method, and the architecture is divided into four layers: application layer, transport layer, network layer, and network interface layer.

Ethernet is the most common communication protocol standard.The Ethernet network uses CSMA/CD technology, (Carrier Sense Multiple Access and Collision Detection) and runs on various types of cables at a rate of 10M/s (or 100M/s, 1000M/s, etc.).It specifies the content of the protocol including the physical layer wiring, electronic signals and media access layer.Simply put, Ethernet is a technology for connecting local area networks, replacing other local area network standards such as Token Ring, FDDI and ARCNET.

Ethernet is only a subset of the Internet. Ethernet is the mainstream local area network standard, and the Internet refers to connecting a large number of local area networks to share resources.In addition, the Internet and Ethernet are two different concepts, the former is a scope concept, the latter is a technical concept.Internet (Internet), wide area network (WAN), local area network (LAN) can be counted as one category, and they are all classified according to area and scope.And Ethernet (Ethernet), ATM network and FDDI network can be counted as a class, they are classified according to the transmission technology.

Ethernet describes the physical (PHY) layer and the data link (Data Link) layer, as shown in the following figure.

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At the physical layer, there are different cable options and differentspeed.However, one of the advantages of Ethernet is that it uses the same data link layer standard.You can mix different Ethernet standards in your network.Here is an example:

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Above we see three hosts connected to two switches using different Ethernet standards.The connections between the switches are 10 Gbps fiber connections.This network will be able to forward Ethernet frames even if we mix different standards.

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